Supranational Legal Transplants:
Law and Politics of the Andean Tribunal of Justice


Laurence Helfer and I have published a number of articles investigating different aspects of the Andean Tribunal, conducting the most thorough and theoretically informed investigation of how supranational legal transplants take root and perform. We are assembling the articles into a book, adding five more years of data to our analysis of preliminary ruling references and comparing our Andean findings to what we have learned in our research in Africa.

Select publications

Transplanting International Courts: Law and Politics of the Andean Tribunal of Justice. With Laurence Helfer), Oxford University Press 2016. Download outline.

Legitimacy and Lawmaking: A Tale of Three International Courts Theoretical Inquiries in Law, Vol. 14 (2013) With Laurence Helfer. Download.

Islands of Effective International Adjudication: Constructing an Intellectual Property Rule of Law in the Andean Community. With Laurence Helfer and Maria Florencia Guerzovitch American Journal of International Law, 103 (1) 2009. Download.

Jurist Advocacy Networks Europe: The Role of Euro-law Associations in Promoting Supra-National Integration (1953-1975)  in The European Court’s Political Power (2009. Download).

“Nature or Nurture: Lawmaking in the European Court of Justice and the Andean Tribunal of Justice” With Laurence Helfer. International Organization 64 (4) 2010: 563-92. Download.

“Transplanting the European Court of Justice: Findings from the Experience of the Andean Tribunal of Justice” With Laurence Helfer, and Osvaldo Saldias. American Journal of Comparative Law 60 (6): 709-744. 2012.  Download.

“Legal Integration in the Andes: Lawmaking by the Andean Tribunal of Justice” 17 European Law Journal 5. With Laurence Helfer. Download.


The Andean Tribunal, with over 2800 rulings to date, is the third most active international court and the most successful copy of the ECJ. We study how the ATJ succeeded and survives within a turbulent regional integration system.