Linked 1860-1870 Sample


The preliminary version of this sample contains information on 1,827 adult males who were located in the manuscript schedules of the 1860 and 1870 Federal Population Censuses. The unit of observation is an individual male. Each observation contains information on the male's characteristics as recorded in the 1860 and 1870 census manuscripts, as well as information on the male's county, city, and town in both years.

The sample was created by locating individuals who appeared exactly once in both the 1860 and 1870 indexes to the federal manuscript schedules. The 1870 index does not cover the entire U.S. The figure below shows its coverage, as well as the areas that have been searched so far to create this preliminary sample.

The sample was created with the assistance of a grant from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. SES-9309689) and is freely available below. Address all questions, comments, and suggestions to the author, Joseph Ferrie,


The file contains 2 80-character records for each individual, laid out as follows: Codes for birthplaces

The Data