|"Raman sideband cooling of a 138Ba+ ion using a Zeeman interval," C. M. Seck, M. G. Kokish, M. R. Dietrich, B. C. Odom. arXiv:1603.09322
Motional ground state cooling and internal state preparation are important elements for quantum logic spectroscopy (QLS), a class of quantum information processing. Since QLS does not require the high gate fidelities usually associated with quantum computation and quantum simulation, it is possible to make simplifying choices in ion species and quantum protocols at the expense of some fidelity. Here, we report sideband cooling and motional state detection protocols for 138Ba+ of sufficient fidelity for QLS without an extremely narrowband laser or the use of a species with hyperfine structure. We use the two S1/2 Zeeman sublevels of 138Ba+ to Raman sideband cool a single ion to the motional ground state. Because of the small Zeeman splitting, near-resonant Raman sideband cooling of 138Ba+ requires only the Doppler cooling lasers and two additional AOMs. Observing the near-resonant Raman optical pumping fluorescence, we estimate a final average motional quantum number n≈0.17. We additionally employ a second, far-off-resonant laser driving Raman π-pulses between the two Zeeman sublevels to provide motional state detection for QLS and to confirm the sideband cooling efficiency, measuring a final n=0.15(6). .
|"Trapped ion chain thermometry and mass
spectrometry through imaging," V. Rajagopal, J. P. Marler, M.G. Kokish, and B. C. Odom. EJMS 22, 1 (2016)
We demonstrate a spatial-imaging thermometry technique for ions in a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal by relating their imaged spatialextent along the linear radiofrequency ion trap axis to normal modes of vibration of coupled oscillators in a harmonic potential. We also use the thermal spatial spread of “bright” ions in the case of a two-species mixed chain to measure the center-of-mass resonance frequency of the entire chain and infer the molecular composition of the co-trapped “dark” ions. These non-destructive techniques create new possibilities for better understanding of sympathetic cooling in mixed-ion chains, improving few-ion mass spectrometry, and trapped-ion thermometry without requiring a scan of Doppler cooling parameters.
|"Simple and Compact Nozzle Design for Laser
Vaporization Sources," M.G. Kokish, M.R. Dietrich, and B. C. Odom. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49, 035301 (2016)
We have developed and implemented a compact transparent nozzle for use in laser vaporization sources. This nozzle eliminates the need for an ablation aperture, allowing for a more intense molecular beam. We use this nozzle to prepare a molecular beam of aluminum monohydride (AlH) suitable for ion trap loading of AlH+ via photoionization in ultra-high vacuum. We demonstrate stable AlH production over hour time scales using a liquid ablation target. The longterm stability, low heat load and fast ion production rate of this source are well-suited to molecular ion experiments employing destructive state readout schemes requiring frequent trap reloading.
|"Doppler Amplification of Motion of a Trapped Three-Level Ion," X. Chen, Y.-W. Lin, and B. C. Odom. New J. Phys. 17, 043037 (2015)
The system of a trapped ion translationally excited by a blue-detuned near-resonant laser, sometimes described as an instance of a phonon laser, has recently received attention as interesting in its own right and for its application to non-destructive readout of internal states of non-fluorescing ions. Previous theoretical work has been limited to cases of two-level ions. Here, we perform simulations to study the dynamics of a phonon laser involving the Λ-type 138Ba+ ion, in which coherent population trapping effects lead to different behavior than in the previously studied cases. We also explore optimization of the laser parameters to maximize amplification gain and signal-to-noise ratio for internal state readout.
|"High Density Pulsed Molecular Beam for Cold Ion Chemistry," M.G. Kokish, V. Rajagopal, J.P. Marler, B.C. Odom. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 08611 (2014)
A recent expansion of cold and ultracold molecule applications has led to renewed focus on molecular species preparation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Meanwhile, molecular beams have been used to study gas phase chemical reactions for decades. In this manuscript, we describe an apparatus that uses pulsed molecular beam technology to achieve high local gas densities, leading to faster reaction rates with cold trapped ions. We characterize the beam's spatial profile using the trapped ions themselves. This apparatus could be used for preparation of molecular species by reactions requiring excitation of trapped ion precursors to states with short lifetimes or for obtaining a high reaction rate with minimal increase of background chamber pressure.
|"Broadband Optical Cooling of Molecular Rotors from Room Temperature to the Ground State," C.-Y. Lien, C.S. Seck, Y.-W. Lin, J.H.V. Nguyen, D.A. Tabor, and. B.C. Odom. Nat. Commun.5, 4783 (2014)
Laser cycling of resonances can remove entropy from a system via spontaneously emitted photons, with electronic resonances providing the fastest available cooling timescales because of their rapid relaxation rates. Although atoms are routinely laser cooled using electronic resonances, cooling of even simple diatomic molecules faces two challenges: every populated rotational and vibrational state requires a different laser frequency, and electronic relaxation generally excites vibrations. Here, we cool trapped AlH+ molecules to their ground rotational-vibrational quantum state using a single spectrally filtered broadband laser electronically exciting many rotational states. Undesired vibrational excitation is avoided because of vibrational-electronic decoupling in AlH+. We demonstrate rotational cooling on the 140(20) ms timescale from room temperature to 3.8 (+1.3/-0.3) K, corresponding to a ground state population increase from ∼3% to 95 (+1.3/-2.0) %. This cooling technique could be applied to several other known ionic and neutral molecular species of interest for quantum information processing, ultracold chemistry applications, and precision tests of fundamental symmetries.
|"Rotational State Analysis of AlH+ by Two-Photon Dissociation," C.S. Seck, E.G. Hohenstein, C.-Y. Lien, P. R. Stollenwerk, and. B.C. Odom. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 108 (2014) [pdf]
We perform ab initio calculations needed to predict the cross-section of an experimentally accessible (1+1') resonance-enhanced multiphoton dissociation (REMPD) pathway in AlH+. Experimenting on AlH+ ions held in a radiofrequency Paul trap, we confirm dissociation via this channel with analysis performed using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We demonstrate the use of REMPD for rotational state analysis, and we measure the rotational distribution of trapped AlH+ to be consistent with the expected thermal distribution. AlH+ is a particularly interesting species for ion trap work because of its electronic level structure, which makes it amenable to proposals for rotational optical pumping, direct Doppler cooling, and single-molecule fluorescence detection. Potential applications of trapped AlH+ include searches for time-varying constants, quantum information processing, and ultracold chemistry studies.
|"Resonant Few-Photon Excitation of a Single-Ion Oscillator," Y.-W. Lin, S. Williams, and B. C. Odom. Phys. Rev. A 87, 011402(R) (2013) [pdf] We study the motion of an undamped single-ion harmonic oscillator, resonantly driven with a pulsed radiation pressure force.We demonstrate that a barium ion, initially cooled to the Doppler limit, quickly phase locks to the drive and builds up coherent oscillations above the thermal distribution after scattering of order 100 photons. In our experiment, this seeded motion is subsequently amplified and then analyzed by Doppler velocimetry. Since the coherent oscillation is conditional upon the internal quantum state of the ion, this motional excitation technique could be useful in atomic or molecular single-ion spectroscopy experiments, providing a simple protocol for state readout of nonfluorescing ions with partially closed-cycle transitions.|
|"Suitability of Linear Quadrupole Ion Traps for Large Coulomb Crystals," D.A. Tabor, V. Rajagopal, Y-W. Lin and B. Odom. Appl. Phys. B. 107, 1097-1104 (2012) [pdf] Growing and studying large Coulomb crystals, composed of tens to hundreds of thousands of ions, in linear quadrupole ion traps presents new challenges for trap implementation. We consider several trap designs, first comparing the total driven micromotion amplitude as a function of location within the trapping volume; total micromotion is an important point of comparison since it can limit crystal size by transfer of radiofrequency drive energy into thermal energy. We also compare the axial component of micromotion, which leads to first-order Doppler shifts along the preferred spectroscopy axis in precision measurements on large Coulomb crystals. Finally, we compare trapping potential anharmonicity, which can induce nonlinear resonance heating by shifting normal mode frequencies onto resonance as a crystal grows. We apply a non-deforming crystal approximation for simple calculation of these anharmonicity-induced shifts, allowing a straightforward estimation of when crystal growth can lead to excitation of different nonlinear heating resonances. In the axial micromotion and anharmonicity points of comparison, we find significant differences between the compared trap designs, with an original rotated-endcap trap performing slightly better than the conventional in-line endcap trap.|
|"Optical Pulse-Shaping for Internal Cooling of Molecules," C.-Y. Lien, S. Williams and B. Odom. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.,
13, 18825-18829 (2011)
We consider the use of pulse-shaped broadband femtosecond lasers to optically cool rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules. Since this approach relies on cooling rotational and vibrational quanta by exciting an electronic transition, it is most easily applicable to molecules with similar ground and excited potential energy surfaces, such that the vibrational state is usually unchanged during electronic relaxation. Compared with schemes that cool rotations by exciting vibrations, this approach achieves internal cooling on the orders-of-magnitude faster electronic decay timescale and is potentially applicable to apolar molecules. For AlH+, a candidate species, a rate- equation simulation shows that rovibrational equilibrium should be achievable in 7 μs. In addition, we report laboratory demonstration of optical pulse shaping with sufficient resolution and power for rotational cooling of AlH+.
|"Challenges of Laser-Cooling Molecular Ions," J.H.V. Nguyen, C.R. Viteri, E.G. Hohenstein, C.D. Sherrill, K.R. Brown and B. Odom. New J. Phys. 13, 063023 (2011)
The direct laser cooling of neutral diatomic molecules in molecular beams suggests that trapped molecular ions can also be laser cooled. The long storage time and spatial localization of trapped molecular ions provides an opportunity for multi-step cooling strategies, but also requires careful consideration of rare molecular transitions. We briefly summarize the requirements that a diatomic molecule must meet for laser cooling, and we identify a few potential molecular ion candidates. We then carry out a detailed computational study of the candidates BH+ and AlH+, including improved ab initio calculations of the electronic state potential energy surfaces and transition rates for rare dissociation events. On the basis of an analysis of the population dynamics, we determine which transitions must be addressed for laser cooling, and compare experimental schemes using continuous-wave and pulsed lasers.
|"Prospects for Doppler Cooling of Three-Electronic-Level Molecules," J.H.V. Nguyen and B. Odom, Phys. Rev. A. 83, 053404 (2011) [pdf]
Analogous to the extension of laser cooling techniques from two-level to three-level atoms, Doppler cooling of molecules with an intermediate electronic state is considered. In particular, we use a rate-equation approach to simulate cooling of SiO+ , in which population buildup in the intermediate state is prevented by its short lifetime. We determine that Doppler cooling of SiO+ can be accomplished without optically repumping from the intermediate state, at the cost of causing undesirable parity ﬂips and rotational diffusion. Since the necessary repumping would require a large number of continuous-wave lasers, optical pulse shaping of a femtosecond laser is proposed as an attractive alternative. Other candidate three-electron-level molecules are also discussed.